Changing diets eg people starting to eat more meat in newly developed countries like China. This means thatfood resources are transported to be sold from areas which need them,especially meat and fish. New pests and pathogens that attack crops and farm animals. The effects of climate change,which is making farming more difficult in many areas.
How are diets changing in the United States?
Search… Diets are changing with rising incomes and urbanization— people are consuming more animal-source foods, sugar, fats and oils, refined grains, and processed foods. This “nutrition transition” is causing increases in overweight and obesity and diet-related diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
How do alternative food systems affect food security and nutrition?
As a result, alternative food systems can also affect food security and nutrition negatively through market and income pathways. 9.4. Possible Future Pathways for Food Systems and the Need for a Food Systems Approach
What are the problems of food security?
Food Security. Second, food insecurity increases with rising food prices. In such situations, people cope by turning to nutrient-poor but calorie-rich foods and/or they endure hunger, with consequences ranging from micronutrient malnutrition to obesity. Third, the nutritional value of some foods is projected to decline.
How are diabetics changing their diets?
Diets are changing with rising incomes and urbanization— people are consuming more animal-source foods, sugar, fats and oils, refined grains, and processed foods. This “nutrition transition” is causing increases in overweight and obesity and diet-related diseases such as diabetes…
How does rising CO2 affect crops?
Because rising CO2 stimulates crop growth , it also stimulates the growth of other plants, such as harmful weeds, fungi, pests and other unwanted plants. The expedited growth of these unwanted plants necessitates a greater use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Last year alone, US farmers spent over $11 billion on pesticides. xv This number is expected to increase in future years. The proliferated use of pesticides raises concerns about harmful chemicals entering food grown for human consumption. Rising CO2 has further implications on the nutritional quality of crops. According to the IPCC, crops grown in an abundance of CO2 have been shown to yield lower nutritional value. Higher CO2 levels are consistent with lower concentrations of protein and essential minerals in crops including wheat, rice, and soybeans. xvi Consequently, decreased nutritional quality may have severe implications on human health.
How does CO2 affect plants?
Carbon dioxide is essential to photosynthesis, as plants use energy from sunlight and water to convert the CO2 absorbed from the atmosphere into their food source, glucose. Rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can have both positive and negative consequences on many plant functions, with some variations between plant species. In controlled environments, a rise in CO2 has been strongly associated with increased plant growth and reproduction. xiii Studies suggest that under controlled, optimal conditions, a two-fold increase in CO2 can increase yields by as much as 36%. xiv There is, however, substantial uncertainty concerning how well these results hold given actual conditions.
How does temperature affect crop production?
Temperature plays a significant role in agricultural crop development and preservation. Biologically, temperature profoundly affect plant physiology, such as high temperatures altering plant cells to lessen crop yields. High temperatures also cause severer weather and rising sea levels, both of which are explicit risks to farming and other agricultural industries throughout the world. Because temperature determines plant growth cycles, seasonal variations and temperature extremes pose dangers to crop production. Crops only tolerate specific temperatures which, if exceeded, result in lessened crop productivity. i Many rain-fed crops in Africa and South America for example currently near their temperature tolerances, which means that even a modest temperature increase will lead to drastic reductions in crop yields. This is because temperature and heat stress directly influence on plant composition. Likewise, temperature shifts disrupt seasonal biomass growth, because critical windows in crop development, such as pollination, are obstructed or delayed. ii Increases in temperature also speed up crop maturation, shortening the seeding and harvesting period. Consequently, this increases the rate of senescence, which is the aging and deterioration of crops. Stable temperatures are important to perennial plants, which flower and mature over Spring and Summer, then die every Autumn and Winter to return the following Spring from their rootstocks. iii Perennial plants are vulnerable to inauspicious climate changes because they require a certain number of frost days to maintain optimum yields and quality. iv Climate change threatens to damage perennial plant production because it is expected to lengthen warm seasons and shorten the cold.
How does increasing production limits affect agriculture?
Secondly, increasing agricultural production limits occurs in a variety of ways. Improved farming practices, technological advances, and alternate food source utilization catalyze new production potential s. In developed countries with low yield gaps, increasing production limits helps to maintain strong food market systems and enable the distribution of more aid to countries in need. Also, maintaining depositories of genetic material is critical to expanding yield potential. According to the USDA, maintaining large depositaries of various crop seed genotypes and genetic materials allows farmers to select optimal crop variations each season, based on soil, weather, and pest conditions. Diverse genetic material also allows scientists and agronomists to genetically engineer stronger plants to better resist pests, require less water, space, or nourishment.
How much food waste is there in the world?
Thirdly, broader global food security must be achieved by reducing food waste. Studies estimate that between 30% and 50% of food—over 1 trillion dollars’ worth—is wasted annually, with an estimated one in four calories produced agriculturally is never consumed. xxxiii In developing and low-income countries, food waste occurs because of failures in farming practices and processing. In developed countries, alternatively, most food waste occurs within households, as roughly 100kg (220 lbs.) of food per person is wasted by choosing to dispose of edible food before its expiration date or because of qualitative deficiencies. xxxiv
How does the world economy affect food?
Growth in the world economy continues to largely determine diets and food preferences. As wealth increases globally, so too does the demand for meat and livestock products. Most of the world’s meat is consumed in high-income countries, but this is quickly changing. In developing countries, the consumption of meat grows between 5-6% annually and the consumption of milk and dairy grows roughly 3.6% annually. xxiv
What was the Green Revolution?
1 “The Green Revolution refers to a set of research and development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s that increased agricultural production worldwide , particularly in the developing world beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.” (Hazell 2009)
How quickly can diets change?
Diets can change very quickly , within a generation. A global nutrition transition, from diets with a high proportion of a limited set of staples toward more diversified diets that are higher in energy and macronutrients—as well as in specific food groups, such as meat, sugar, processed foods, and foods eaten outside the home—has been well documented. 12 – 16
How difficult is it to change diet?
The first is one of principle, that what we eat is a matter of sovereign personal or collective choice. 7 The second is based on practical experience, for example, evidence of poor long-term outcomes from dietary weight-loss programs. 8 The third is theoretical, based on the premise that there are few levers for society-wide behavioral change. For example, a common view among the environmental community is that achieving emissions reductions via changes in agricultural practices and technologies will be much easier to accomplish than via dietary change among billions of consumers. 4, 6
What is aspirational food?
An aspirational global food system is one that delivers across a suite of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including universal access to healthy diets, which can also codeliver on climate and environment SDGs. The literature has downplayed the relative contribution of dietary change to sustainable food systems. In this perspective article, we argue that the potential for positive transformational change in diets should not be underestimated, for two sets of reasons. First, the dynamism of diets over long-term and, especially, recent history shows the potential for rapid and widespread change, including toward more diverse and healthier diets. Second, contemporary behavioral research demonstrates promising tactics to influence consumers’ dietary choices. Since the entire food system creates the circumstances of those choices, the most effective strategies to shift diets will involve multiple approaches that deliberately aim not just to influence consumers themselves but also to incentivize all actors in the food systems, taking into account multiple agendas and values. The effectiveness of actions will depend on the political economy at local, national, and global levels. Overall, there are reasons to be hopeful about the potential for accelerated global dietary change, given both historic trends and the growing suite of tools and approaches available.
What is technological innovation in food?
Technological innovation in food is a probable game-changer for healthy and sustainable diets. 105 The world has moved quickly from conjecture to highly visible and successful start-up companies creating lab-based meats, edible insect products, and algal feed sources. The cases of Danone’s expansion into plant milks and Tyson’s investment in alt-meats signal a move from the periphery to the mainstream for alternatives to animal-source foods. 119, 120 Production costs, and hence consumer prices, of alternatives to ruminant meat are currently prohibitive for the mass market, but are falling very rapidly and have potential to become less expensive than real meat, so that consumers could be soon leveraged on cost to eat healthier and more sustainably. 121
How to make sustainable options more appealing?
Another way to make sustainable options more appealing is to make them cheaper relative to unsustainable options . Taxes and other price incentives can be highly effective, though levies or sin taxes may backfire because the payment provides a social license for the behavior, 87 while payments or subsidies can crowd out intrinsic motivations to act virtuously. 88 In this context, an example of an effective strategy may be the successful sugar tax in the UK, 89 which incentivized manufacturers on reformulation, in order to avoid tax thresholds, rather than consumers to change their consumption habits. The same approach could use CO 2 emissions per portion to incentivize innovative reformulation or development of sustainable food products.
What is the purpose of developing products and markets?
Develop products, and market healthy and sustainable options, as appealing and delicious, rather than on messages of health, sustainability, or abstemiousness.
How many calories did people consume in 1960?
People, almost without exception, are eating more food than their grandparents did. The mean 2250 calories humanity consumed in 1960 rose to 2800 by 2010, a 24% increase globally in half a century. Similar trends are true for protein (+25%), fat (+46%), and food mass (+25%). 17
How can intergovernmental organizations help the food system?
Intergovernmental organizations and platforms, such as the United Nations Committee on World Food Security ( CFS, 2016 ), can play a key catalytic role in driving more sustainable food systems. Through studies and analyses, these organizations can provide policy advice and knowledge on food system transformation and its impacts on food security and nutrition. Furthermore, they offer technical support and capacity development linked to investment and policy processes that affect food system developments. They are also neutral actors that can facilitate the interministerial, multistakeholder collaborations needed to move beyond traditional “silo” structures and toward multidisciplinary and systemic approaches.
How does the private sector affect food?
Private sector behavior is driven by a complex set of factors, including their need to compete in the marketplace, the regulations, policies, and laws they must adhere to , the needs and wants of consumers, the intricacies of their collaborative networks, and their internal risk management and social responsibility strategies. They have to balance short-term financial objectives with long-term sustainability goals. While changing consumer wants and needs constantly creates new market opportunities, including ones for more sustainable food products, these markets are often small initially and risky to establish a foothold. At the same time, there are win-win strategies that could improve firm competitiveness and profitability, generate positive social and environmental impacts, and improve food security and nutrition in a society (e.g., improved technologies that reduce food loss). Within the private sector, systemic solutions to food system challenges will require new partnership formats, both vertically (e.g., contract farming, inclusive business models) and horizontally (e.g., farmer cooperatives, industry associations).
How do consumers influence the food system?
This consumer choice is influenced by a great number of elements that make up the food environment; these elements include, among others, the range and nature of products available to consumers along with information about these products to which they are exposed, such as the marketing campaigns of firms and retailers, public sector education for healthy diets, and information provided through consumer associations, magazines, and other sources. Within the set of food products accessible to them, consumers will furthermore make choices based on their preferences in terms of taste, convenience, appearance, household needs, cultural traditions, and so on.
How can civil society organizations help the environment?
Civil society organizations (nongovernmental organizations, consumer groups, religious communities, etc.) and community leaders, including those with many followers linked through social networks, can play a key role in awareness-raising to foster greater demand for nutritious and socially and environmentally responsible foods. Such organizations and individuals wield more political and market power than individual consumers, and are typically important cultural influencers to change consumers’ perception of desirable foods and eating habits. They can also put pressure on businesses and governments to ensure that the social and environmental impacts of food production, processing, and distribution are factored strongly in their food security and nutrition-related agendas.
What are the unintended consequences of food system development?
These include the growing incidence of malnutrition and the associated burden of noncommunicable diseases, increased inequality of access for both producers and consumers, concerns related to food safety and transboundary diseases, and about the resilience of food systems to the impacts of climate change. These concerns are likely to provide a focus for the types of interventions that the public sector makes in relation to food systems over the coming years.
How can the public sector help the food system?
The public sector can push food system developments toward more sustainable outcomes and improved food security and nutrition through a multitude of pathways. It can create a strong supporting enabling environment for businesses that focuses on the production and distribution of sustainable and nutritious foods through fiscal, legal, and policy measures (e.g., territorial investment in infrastructure linked to new urban market food systems or environmental regulations to reflect the real costs of the food system). It can engage in public–private partnerships based on common interests, such as commercial demands that overlap with public goods demands, and direct its institutional food procurement strategies to stimulate local development, especially targeting small farms and firms. School feeding programs can be promoted based on both innovative institutional procurement and education strategies. Governments can also influence consumer demands through new food labeling requirements and consumer education and awareness programs.
What are aggregate level trends in food consumption in many parts of the world?
Aggregate level trends in food consumption in many parts of the world are likely to drive further consolidation as private sector operators strive to deliver higher quantities of food to growing and increasingly urbanized populations, particularly in developing countries. These mainstream food systems are focused on efficiency improvement and commercial viability and tend to be characterized by deeper globalization, more consolidation, more vertical integration, and ever-tighter margins.
Why are crop yields declining?
Many crop yields are predicted to decline because of the combined effects of changes in rainfall, severe weather events, and increasing competition from weeds and pests on crop plants. Livestock and fish production are also projected to decline.
Why do farmers need to use more pesticides?
Fourth, farmers are expected to need to use more herbicides and pesticides because of increased growth of pests and weeds, as well as decreased effectiveness and duration of some chemicals. Farmers, farmworkers, and consumers will be increasingly exposed to these substances and their residues, which can be toxic.
What are the nutrients that are lost in soil?
The nutrient content of crops is also projected to decline if soil nitrogen levels are suboptimal, with reduced levels of nutrients such as calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and sugars. This effect can be alleviated if sufficient nitrogen is supplied.
How does food insecurity affect health?
Second, food insecurity increases with rising food prices.
What Causes Food Insecurity?
Food insecurity is a symptom of access, availability, utilization, and a secure environment which are often problems tied to issues of poverty, inequality, and marginalization.
Why is food insecurity so severe?
The most straightforward and severe form of food insecurity occurs when people lack access to the sheer calories required to sustain basic health. Hunger alone is not the only factor to consider. Food security deepens in complexity when nutritional needs enter the picture. Even when stomachs are filled, poor food quality can leave individuals, families, and communities with deficits in vital macro and micronutrients.
How can we overcome food insecurity?
The ultimate goal of overcoming food insecurity must focus on building stable, sustainable, and local food systems. To truly target world hunger, global efforts need to be made to both enhance agricultural production, processing and trade, and people’s financial ability to acquire nutritious food.
What are the factors that contribute to foodborne bacteria?
Environmental pollutants are another factor. Food preparation and storage also come into play. Inconsistent ability to refrigerate or cook foods invites the growth of foodborne bacteria.
How many people will not have enough food in 2020?
Before the pandemic, it was estimated that more than 820 million people across the globe would not have enough to eat. COVID is dramatically accelerating this issue, almost doubling the number by the end of 2020. The global problem of hunger is most aptly characterized as a lack of food security. According to the United Nations, a person …
What is the global problem of hunger?
The global problem of hunger is most aptly characterized as a lack of food security. According to the United Nations, a person with food security must have “physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life.”.
Why are children stunted?
Around the world, 22% of children are stunted, meaning they are short for their age due to poor nutrition or repeated infections. Insufficient nutrients for expectant or nursing parents are also a significant consideration.
1. By 2050, climate change impacts could increase the risk of food insecurity by up to 20 percent
According to the World Food Programme, without dedicated efforts to curb the impacts of climate change on the environment, we risk increasing hunger and the breakdown of reliable food systems for communities around the globe.
2. To adequately feed the global population in 2050, crop production would have to double
By the year 2050, the world’s population is expected to grow from about 7 billion to an estimated 9.1 billion. Within that population, 8 billion people are expected to live in developing countries, where food security is already a rarity.
3. Catches of the world’s most relied-upon fish are expected to decrease by up to 60 percent by 2050
By 2050, fish yields in the Tropics and Antarctica are expected to fall by 40 to 60 percent due to overfishing and species migration to more temperate locations. This threatens the income of fishers in the region, as well as the underwater ecosystem.
4. Livestock contributes almost 80 percent of agricultural methane emissions, and about 66 percent of greenhouse gas emissions
Livestock are an essential source of income and food for many communities around the world. But their growing populations can threaten the environment if they aren’t raised sustainably.
5. Food loss or waste generates about 8 percent of annual greenhouse emissions
Currently, one-third of all food produced in the world is lost or wasted during production or consumption. This not only negatively impacts the global food supply, but also the environment, accounting for 8 percent of annual greenhouse gas emissions.
6. 78 percent of the world’s food-insecure people rely on agriculture for their livelihoods
An adequate food supply isn’t just crucial for sustained nutrition — it’s also essential to the economic well-being of food producers. People who produce food — like farmers and fishers — are often hit hardest by climate change, which directly affects their personal food supply and sources of income.